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A Chicken’s Deadly Disease: Infectious Bursal Disease

By Tom Seest

What Are the Effects Of Infectious Bursal Disease on Chickens?

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The infectious bursal disease affects chickens in several ways, including immunosuppression and mortality. It also affects other lymphoid organs. In this article, we’ll discuss the disease’s pathophysiology and how it may impact your flock.

What Are the Effects Of Infectious Bursal Disease on Chickens?

What Are the Effects Of Infectious Bursal Disease on Chickens?

What Is the Impact of Infectious Bursal Disease on Chickens?

Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an important cause of immunosuppression and mortality in chickens. It affects young chickens and is caused by a virus. It causes destruction of the bursa and depletion of lymphoid organs. The disease generally strikes chickens within three to six weeks after hatching. Infections in chickens can be subclinical or clinical. The latter type is more economically significant.
The virus responsible for IBD is highly contagious. It is also resistant to common disinfectants. It has a segmented double-stranded RNA genome and undergoes frequent mutations. It targets the bursa of Fabricius in 3-6-week-old chicks. The infection causes immunosuppression and poor responses to subsequent vaccinations.
The disease is caused by invading viruses. Chickens exposed to IBD develop clinical signs that depend on the strain of the virus and their immune system. The signs of this disease begin to appear between three and six weeks of age and typically occur within three days of exposure. It often causes severe depression in the affected chickens. It may also result in ruffled feathers.
Infectious bursal disease is a serious infection that affects chickens. It first appears as an increase in mortality. Clinical symptoms may include ruffled feathers, depression, and lack of appetite. The disease may also result in respiratory or gastrointestinal problems.
The infectious bursal disease is caused by a virus called AviBirnavirus and occurs only in chickens. It causes lymphoid depletion in the bursa of Fabricius, a part of the bird’s immune system. As a result, chickens with the disease are more susceptible to other infections.
vvIBDV has clinical signs similar to the classic virus, but it causes higher mortality. Affected birds exhibit depressed behavior, blood-stained vents, and recumbent behavior. Mortality rates vary but have been as high as 80 percent.
The virus is transmitted by the feces of chickens two to ten weeks old. Virus shedding begins 48 hours after infection and can continue for 14-16 days. It is also spread to other poultry and humans through manure and water.
Treatment is not effective in controlling the disease. Although the viral infection can be controlled with drugs, they cannot control the secondary agents that cause the disease. Although avian influenza is not an effective means to control the viral infection, it can control the symptoms and the consequences of immunosuppression.
IBD is the biggest threat to poultry production in the country and is widespread in all regions. It has been detected in all multiplication centers and commercial farms investigated. It has an average outbreak rate of three to four farms per year, resulting in significant economic losses in the country. As a result, it poses a serious challenge for vaccine development.

What Is the Impact of Infectious Bursal Disease on Chickens?

What Is the Impact of Infectious Bursal Disease on Chickens?

What Other Effects Does Infectious Bursal Disease Have on Chickens?

Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a viral disease that affects the bursa of the caecal tonsils in chickens. It also affects the thymus and spleen. It can also affect other lymphoid organs, including the harderian glands and the caecal tonsils. It causes lesions in the affected organs, such as Payer’s patches and Harderian glands.
Clinical signs include severe lesions and an enlarged cloacal bursa. It can grow up to five times its normal size and develop prominent longitudinal striations. Infected birds become immunocompromised and are vulnerable to other pathogens.
Control of IBD is important through biosecurity and vaccination. A study conducted in Nigeria identified lesions in lymphoid organs in chickens infected with IBDV. The lesions were correlated with the development of clinical IBD in affected chicks. The results provide insight into early diagnosis of the disease and vaccine development.
Infectious bursal disease can affect the lymphoid organs of chickens and can lead to high mortality rates. It is highly contagious and can affect any age or breed. The age and breed of the chicken will determine the severity of the infection. Early infections are often subclinical, while clinical disease usually occurs between three and six weeks of age. However, severe cases have been reported in Leghorn chickens at 18 weeks of age.
Besides the bursa, the infection can also affect the BF and other lymphoid organs. Moreover, the disease can cause immunosuppression in chickens. This can happen because the bursa’s B cells are depleted. The disease is also accompanied by depletion of B cells in the peripheral blood and thymic medulla. It is also possible for the virus to be detected in the caucal tonsils.
Infectious bursal disease in chickens is an acute viral infection that affects the lymphoid organs in young chickens. The infection destroys developing B lymphocytes in the bursa of the cloacal bursa, causing a potentially fatal disease in chickens. The virus has no cure yet, and infected chickens are more susceptible to concurrent infections.
Infectious bursal disease is diagnosed through gross lesions in the bursa and microscopic examination of the bursa. Lymphocyte depletion in the follicles may also be indicative of the disease. The viral genome in bursa tissue can be identified using reverse-transcriptase-PCR assay. The VP2 coding region of the virus has been used to classify different IBD strains. The virus is very stable and is hard to eradicate from a premises.
Clinical signs in chickens include hemorrhagic changes in the proventriculus on days one, two, and three after infection. The spleen and thymus also exhibit hemorrhagic changes. The kidney exhibits a swollen and congested appearance, and the tubules are stained with white deposits.
Infection with IBDV affects all branches of the immune system. The infection impairs the maturation of B cells, a critical process for the immune system. This reduces immunity and increases susceptibility to infectious diseases. IBD is a serious problem that threatens the poultry industry.
Detection of IBD requires careful analysis of flock history, lesions, and clinical signs. Clinical signs usually appear suddenly and are accompanied by dehydration and ruffled feathers. Affected chickens also exhibit transient immunosuppression. During necropsy, the presence of characteristic gross lesions can confirm a diagnosis of IBD.

What Other Effects Does Infectious Bursal Disease Have on Chickens?

What Other Effects Does Infectious Bursal Disease Have on Chickens?

Be sure to read our other related stories at BackyardChickenNews to learn more about raising chickens in your backyard.


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